In June 2019, Prime Minister Abe was in Tehran to help mediate a possible dialogue between the United States and its arch-enemy in the Middle East. Abe`s trip called on Iranian leaders to respect international nuclear rules and play a «constructive role» for regional security came shortly after President Trump`s state visit to Japan, during which Iran was one of the main topics of discussion. Under U.S. law, the JCPOA is a non-binding political commitment. [161] [162] According to the U.S. State Department, this is not, among other things, an executive agreement or a contract. [Citation required] There are many false reports that this is an executive agreement. [163] [164] Unlike treaties that require two-thirds of the Senate to ratify, political commitments do not require congressional approval and are not legally binding (although in some cases they may be binding under international law for the United States). [163] [f] On April 2, 2015, a framework was reached for a nuclear agreement with Iran. In this context, Iran has tentatively agreed to accept restrictions on its nuclear program, which would take at least a decade and some more, and to submit to an increase in the intensity of international inspections under a framework agreement. These details are expected to be negotiated by the end of June 2015.

Negotiations on a common comprehensive action plan were extended several times until the final agreement, the Joint Comprehensive Action Plan, was finally reached on 14 July 2015. [55] [56] The JCPOA is based on the framework agreement three months earlier. 14 July 2020: On the fifth anniversary of the JCPOA, Josep Borrell, EU foreign policy chief, publishes an article recalling the agreement and raising Iran`s concerns about Europe`s implementation of the agreement. «After having already taken steps to protect our companies from US extraterritorial sanctions, we can do more in Europe to meet Iranian expectations of legitimate trade.» State Department spokesman John Kirby responded: «There are no secret agreements between Iran and the IAEA that the P5-1 has not been informed of in detail» and said, «This type of technical agreement with the IAEA is a matter of standard practice, whether it is not published publicly or in other states, but our experts know and know the content. we would like to talk to Congress in a secret setting. [289] The Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation wrote: «The agreement sets out procedural information on how the IAEA will conduct its investigation into the history of Iran`s laminated nuclear program, including the mention of the names of the informants who will be interviewed.

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